Is 32 hours considered full time in Colorado?

Many Colorado employers provide employee benefits, pay differentials, job assignments and other important benefits on the basis of whether an employee works full time or part time. This can lead to a lot of questions about what is full time under Colorado employment law. These questions typically do not exist when employees work a forty hour workweek but usually arise when employees work thirty-two hours or some other slightly lower number. For example, you might wonder is 32 hours considered full time in Colorado. The answer depends upon to what issue the full time status relates. Today’s post will explore some of the common issues in determining full time status under Colorado employment law.

Basic rule for full time status in Colorado

Colorado labor and employment law does not contain an expansive definition of full time or part time status for employees. In general an employee is full time or part time based upon an employer’s own definition. Full time versus part time is often a dividing line for benefits or certain positions but that line is typically not drawn out of a federal or Colorado employment law.

However, several employment law statutes set minimum or maximum limits for how much an employee may or must work to obtain a specific status under the law. Examples include:

  • Employees must work 1000 hours within a calendar year to obtain FMLA eligibility which might informally be considered a full time employee;
  • Minors generally have limited maximum hours of work within a workweek and cannot be required to miss school hours for work;
  • Employees working in certain transportation jobs may be limited by how many travel hours they may complete in a day or week;

We will talk about some common statutory minimum hours for full time status under federal and Colorado employment law in greater detail although it is important to note that the term “full time” is not common statutory or regulatory language in federal and Colorado law.

When a labor law or employment law does not set a minimum or maximum hourly requirement it is generally up to the employer or an agreement between employees and employer to determine when full time status kicks in for particular benefits, job assignments, compensation and so forth. Many Colorado employers consider full time a forty hour workweek schedule but some draw the line at a smaller number. Some employers set the line at thirty-five or thirty-two hours, particularly in industries like restaurants and retail where employees might work flexible schedules or less than a five day workweek.

The best way to assess whether you are a full time employee in Colorado at thirty-two hours is to focus on the specific subject in which the full time status applies. Review your employer’s documentation and legal resources to determine the answer as it applies to that subject. You might be full time for some subjects and not for others. Applying a single rule to every workplace issue might result in misinforming yourself. Operating on misinformed positions could put your job at risk. As always, if legal issues are involved in your question you should consult employment lawyers in Colorado as soon as possible.

Overtime pay in Colorado

Overtime pay is not exactly a full time versus part time issue but it definitely deals with the work hours for an employee. Federal and Colorado overtime laws calculate overtime pay for all hours in the workweek exceeding forty hours of work for all nonexempt employees. For this purpose an employee can be considered a full time employee at forty hours under the statute. An employee working overtime hours is more than full time. An employer could begin paying overtime pay at thirty-two hours if it wishes but that is an extremely uncommon practice.

Employee benefits and full time status

Most employees care about full time status because employers make benefit plans available to full time employees but may not extend them to part time employees. When we think about employee benefits from an employment law perspective we can think of them in two categories. The differences in categories is important to how and when an employer may make benefits available to employees based on work hours.

Regulated benefit plans under federal and Colorado employment law

First are employee benefit plans regulated by law. For private employers this typically falls under ERISA, the federal law regulating many types of employee benefit plans including:

  • 401k plans
  • Defined benefit pension plans
  • 403b plans
  • Health care plans (e.g. health insurance)
  • Cafeteria plans (e.g. reimbursement benefits)
  • Certain long and short term disability benefits
  • Some severance benefits

Employees of federal and Colorado government agencies often offer similar benefits operated under a plan regulated by state or federal laws as applicable. Although the complex regulatory apparatus behind ERISA does not apply to these plans they still generally follow similar regulatory mechanisms.

Benefits regulated by ERISA or other laws must operate as a plan with established rules. The applicable laws often set requirements for eligibility to the plan. Often employers may establish rules for eligibility based upon hours or length of service with the employer within the permitted confines of the law. Often employers can set eligibility on completion of a certain number of work hours in a year which effectively makes many part time employees ineligible for benefits.

A specific weekly hour threshold exists in the Affordable Care Act. Under the ACA employers must make available compliant health insurance to all employees who regularly work at least thirty hours in a work week. For the purposes of the ACA an employee is full time if the employee works thirty hours in a regular work week. Employers cannot set a higher limit for full time like thirty-two hours or forty hours.

Other benefits or fringe benefits

Employers may offer other benefits not regulated by ERISA or other laws. For these benefits an employer can generally set whatever constraints on eligibility it wishes. (Employers cannot use an unlawful motivation to extend benefits, such as unlawful forms of employment discrimination or in retaliation for complaining about a minimum wage violation.) These benefits include:

  • Paid time off (e.g. vacation pay, sick pay, personal days)
  • Company car
  • Most bonus programs
  • Training programs
  • Company sport programs
  • Free tickets to events
  • Raffles

Employers can set limits for work hours, length of service, job title and so forth to make these benefits available. If an employer sets a threshold for work hours as a full time employee for these benefits it may do so and even set different standards for each benefit. Often employers try to target a specific number for consistency, such as fort hours or thirty-two hours for full time employment across benefits; but an employer is free to have a more confusing policy.

Unemployment benefits in Colorado and employment status

Colorado unemployment benefits require that employees work for a given length of time and earn a minimum of $2500 during that period. It does not require an employee to work any specific number of hours in a workweek or for an employer to designate employees as full time employees. So long as an employee meets the length of service and wage minimums then the employee qualifies for a claim. (Assuming the employee otherwise qualifies.)

Some employers as a matter of course pay severance benefits to employees designated as full time employees. Here the issue may be complicated because a severance plan may fall under ERISA regulation but does not necessarily fall under ERISA regulation. The best way to begin answering that question is to review the severance information available from your employer which may include ERISA language.

What is considered a living wage in Colorado?

Living wage has been a growing issue in labor politics and economic discussions in this country, particularly as unions and other worker groups began aggressively championing raising minimum wage over the past few years. Living wages are of concern here in Colorado as rent and home prices soared over the past decade. When living costs in Denver and other Colorado cities exceed local wages it prices workers out of their homes. Rising costs partially drove the push to increase Colorado minimum wage; however, minimum wage often fails to provide a living wage for Colorado workers. Today’s post will explore what is considered a living wage in Colorado and some of the legal concerns that arise in the debate.

What is a living wage?

A living wage is the hourly rate an individual must earn to support his or her family when that person is the sole provider and works full time. Living wage is not the same thing as minimum wage. Minimum wage is a minimum amount an employer may pay to an employee covered by the minimum wage law for work. Living wage considers the costs to that family to meet their minimum needs for self-sufficiency where the family lives. These costs change across regions rather than assume equal costs across the board. Note that a living wage is not a calculation of the wage necessary to live comfortably or move up the economic ladder.

Typically economists calculate living wages in light of the size of the family supported by the sole provider. For example, a Colorado employee without a significant other or children needs to earn far less than an employee supporting a family of four. This is for obvious reasons. Feeding four people costs more than one. Therefore, living wage varies not only by location but also by the size of the family supported.

Living wage in Denver, for example, requires a single employee to earn $12.95 which is above the current minimum wage. If that employee supports another adult and two children that number rises to $28.01, almost three times minimum wage. See your local living wage calculated using this calculator from MIT.

Colorado labor law final paycheck infographic

Colorado minimum wage vs. living wage

Minimum wage laws began as a way to end sweatshops and require employers to pay a living wage. Generally over time minimum wage laws in the United States failed to keep up with living wage requirements. Federal minimum wage set by the Fair Labor Standards Act is far below the living wage calculated in most parts of the country. Twenty-nine states have state minimum wages higher than federal law, including Colorado. Amendment 70 to the Colorado Constitution set minimum wage on a stair step to 2020 when increases tie to inflation.

Employees earning the Colorado minimum wage may still not reach a living wage. Considerations for calculating living wage include home prices, rent costs, utilities, food, transportation and healthcare. Although these are basic costs they do not include many expenses that Colorado employees may face. Nor do they include other financial considerations like retirement savings or entertainment.

Considerations for Colorado living wage

A living wage is not uniform across Colorado. Basic family expenses vary considerably across the state. For example, rent and home prices in Denver are far more expensive than most rural parts of Colorado. As expenses increase, so too does the living wage required to afford those expenses. Living wage is not always a linear increase with the urban density. For example, the Colorado Springs metro area requires only a slight decrease from the Denver metro area. Generally, however, urban areas are more expensive than rural areas in Colorado.

An important issue in Colorado is that living expenses are increasing at a rapid rate compared to wages. Studies of government data reflect living expenses increased three times as fast as wages. You can easily see how this happened with the explosion of both home and rent costs compared to even the increase in Colorado minimum wage. This is not a Denver problem. Growth in other large Colorado cities like Greeley, Loveland and Pueblo face the same struggles. Urbanization is not the only factor driving higher living costs. Many mountain communities have high living wages due to expensive housing costs, particular around tourist destinations.

A living wage in Colorado

Colorado employees must consider their location and how local cost variance affects their ability to support their families. The size of the family and location are key issues in self-sufficiency. An individual employee in Colorado needs to earn between $10.75 and $13 hourly just to sustain basic living costs. Note that even the lowest cost area of the state is above the Colorado minimum wage. For a family of four the living wage ranges from $24.00 to $29.00 far above the state minimum wage.

Unfortunately two income households do not fare better on minimum wage. In Denver a two income household with no children needs two earners making $10.55 hourly which is still above minimum wage. In lower cost areas a two income household with no children earn a living wage at minimum wage but fall below if they have a child.

This demonstrates how financially precarious life can be for many Colorado families. Lost wages or a lost job can send a family already struggling to meet their basic needs into complete financial collapse.

Legal issues and a living wage in Colorado

Families earning at or below a living wage in Colorado often work jobs at or near minimum wage. They may rely upon working multiple jobs (full or part time) and earning overtime pay. An employer refusing to pay wages earned by employees can have substantial effect on the employees and their families.

Employers who pay non-exempt employees below minimum wage steal from their workers and violate federal and state minimum wage laws. Employees in this situation have rights under federal and state law to recover unpaid wages through administrative or judicial means.

The same happens when employers fail to pay overtime pay owed to non-exempt employees. Employees earn overtime pay under federal and state wage laws. This is a higher rate of pay than minimum wage or the employee’s regular rate of pay. Employees can recover unpaid overtime pay through Colorado administrative procedures or in court.

Employers also sometimes fail to pay wages at all. Some ways employers fail to pay wages owed include:

  • Not issuing paychecks at all;
  • Failure to pay a final paycheck;
  • Shifting hours from one workweek to another to turn overtime hours into regular pay hours;
  • Removing hours from timesheets;
  • Requiring employees to work off the clock during lunches or before/after shifts;
  • Deducting hours or pay for impermissible deductions.

If your employer failed to pay some or all of your wages then you have rights to recover unpaid wages and other relief under federal and state wage laws. These laws may allow you to recover liquidated damages doubling the amount of unpaid wages, out of pocket losses caused by the failure to pay wages, attorney’s fees and court costs.

Additionally, your employer may not retaliate against you for complaining about or reporting unpaid wages. If your employer terminates you or takes other legal action for complaining about unpaid wages or reporting unpaid wages to a government agency then you have rights to recover for lost wages and other harm.

If you believe any of these unlawful acts occurred to you then you should talk to an unpaid wage lawyer in Colorado right away. An employment lawyer can advise you on your rights and how to proceed to receive the wages you earned. Speak to an unpaid wage lawyer as soon as possible. Many wage claims have short periods that require you to act to preserve your claim. The longer you wait to talk to a lawyer the more you risk not receiving the wages you earned.